Bleeding is a serious complication after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) that is associated with an increase in perioperative morbidity and mortality. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (4F-PCCs) have been used off-label to supplement transfusion protocols for bleeding after CPB in adults; however, data on their use in neonates are limited. In this study, we hypothesized that 4F-PCCs administered ex vivo to neonatal plasma after CPB will increase thrombin generation.
Fifteen neonates undergoing complex cardiac repairs requiring CPB were enrolled in this prospective study. Arterial blood was obtained after anesthesia induction but before CPB (baseline), after CPB following heparin reversal, and after our standardized transfusion of a quarter of a platelet apheresis unit (approximately 20 mL·kg−1) and 3 units of cryoprecipitate. Kcentra (CSL Behring), a 4F-PCC with nonactivated factor VII (FVII), and factor 8 inhibitor bypassing activity (FEIBA; Baxter Healthcare Corporation), a 4F-PCC with activated FVII, were added ex vivo to plasma obtained after CPB to yield concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 IU·mL−1. Calibrated automated thrombography was used to determine thrombin generation for each sample.
The addition of Kcentra to plasma obtained after CPB resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the median (99% confidence interval) peak amount of thrombin generation (42.0 [28.7–50.7] nM for Kcentra 0.1 IU·mL−1 and 113.9 [99.0–142.1] nM for Kcentra 0.3 IU·mL−1). The rate of thrombin generation was also increased (15.4 [6.5–24.6] nM·min−1 for Kcentra 0.1 IU·mL−1 and 48.6 [29.9–66.6] nM·min−1 for Kcentra 0.3 IU·mL−1). The same was true for FEIBA (increase in peak: 39.8 [27.5–49.2] nM for FEIBA 0.1 IU·mL−1 and 104.6 [92.7–124.4] nM for FEIBA 0.3 IU·mL−1; increase in rate: 17.4 [7.4–28.8] nM·min−1 FEIBA 0.1 IU·mL−1 and 50.5 [26.7– 63.1] nM·min−1 FEIBA 0.3 IU·mL−1). In the posttransfusion samples, there was a significant increase with Kcentra in the median (99% confidence interval) peak amount (41.1 [21.0–59.7] nM for Kcentra 0.1 IU·mL−1 and 126.8 [106.6– 137.9] nM for Kcentra 0.3 IU·mL−1) and rate (18.1 [−6.2 to 29.2] nM·min−1 for Kcentra 0.1 IU·mL−1 and 53.2 [28.2–83.1] nM·min−1 for Kcentra 0.3 IU·mL−1) of thrombin generation. Again, the results were similar for FEIBA (increase in peak: 43.0 [36.4–56.7] nM for FEIBA 0.1 IU·mL−1 and 109.2 [90.3–136.1] nM for FEIBA 0.3 IU·mL−1; increase in rate: 25.0 [9.1–32.6] nM·min−1 for FEIBA 0.1 IU·mL−1 and 59.7 [38.5–68.7] nM·min−1 for FEIBA 0.3 IU·mL−1). However, FEIBA produced in a greater median reduction in lag time of thrombin generation versus Kcentra in samples obtained after CPB (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0002 for FEIBA versus Kcentra at 0.1 and 0.3 IU·mL−1, respectively) and in samples obtained after transfusion (P < 0.0001 for FEIBA versus Kcentra at 0.1 and 0.3 IU·mL−1).
After CPB, thrombin generation in neonatal plasma was augmented by the addition of 4F-PCCs. The peak amount and rate of thrombin generation were enhanced in all conditions, whereas the lag time was shortened more with FEIBA. Our findings suggest that the use of 4F-PCCs containing activated FVII may be an effective adjunct to the initial transfusion of platelets and cryoprecipitate to augment coagulation and control bleeding in neonates after CPB.