Respiratory failure caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with mortality. Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy may benefit from temporary venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). We investigated clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, particularly, right ventricular dysfunction, with survival in patients with respiratory failure caused by SARS-CoV-2. We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients requiring VV-ECMO for respiratory failure from COVID-19 infection between January 2020 and December 2020. Demographics, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, and echocardiographic features of left and right ventricular (LV/RV) function were compared between patients who survived and those who could not be weaned from VV-ECMO. In addition, we evaluated outcomes in a separate population managed with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). In total, 10/17 patients failed to wean from VV-ECMO and died in the hospital on average 41.5 ± 10.9 days post admission. Seven were decannulated (41%) and survived to hospital discharge. There were no significant differences in demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory parameters between groups. Moderate to severe RV dysfunction was significantly more in those who died (8/10, 80%) compared to survivors (0/7, 0%) (p = 0.002). Patients supported with VA-ECMO had superior survival with 5/9 patients (56%) decannulated and discharged. Moderate to severe RV dysfunction is associated with increased mortality in patients with respiratory failure requiring VV-ECMO for COVID-19.