Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) which can affect morbidity and mortality. Goal-directed perfusion (GDP) intended to avoid the nadir oxygen delivery index below the critical value is associated with reduced postoperative AKI. However, current studies suggested that GDP can only decrease the incidence of AKI stage 1 but showed no effects on AKI stages 2–3 and mortality. The objective of the present meta-analysis is to deter the effects of GDP on postoperative AKI in any stage and mortality following cardiac surgery.
MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all clinical trials comparing GDP with control (standard care) during cardiopulmonary bypass conducting in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury. Secondary outcomes included postoperative mortality and length of ICU stay. Data synthesis was obtained by using risk ratio with 95% confidence interval by a random-effects model.
From 1094 potential studies, 3 trials enrolling 777 patients were included. Meta-analysis suggested the GDP strategy based on DO2i reduced postoperative AKI compared with standard CPB management (RR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.38–0.70; p < .0001), especially in AKI stage I (RR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.66; p < .0001). But the GDP strategy did not reduce the incidence of severe AKI (stages 2–3) and postoperative mortality.
The GDP strategy based on DO2i during CPB obviously reduces AKI stage 1 and thus reduces overall AKI incidence. But it shows no effects on severe AKI (stages 2–3) and mortality.