Cardiopulmonary Bypass Duration and the Incidence of Pressure Injuries in Patients Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery

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The CPB duration, use of vasoactive drugs, and presence of diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for the development of PIs in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with CPB.

 

A Retrospective Cohort Study

Purpose
The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration and the incidence of pressure injuries (PIs) in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery.

Design
Retrospective chart review.

Subjects and Setting
Two hundred and eighty-eight patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery with CPB from January 2016 through December 2016 in a 2000-bed general hospital, which integrates medical service, education, and research and in which 300 to 350 cardiovascular surgical procedures with CPB are performed each year.

Methods
We retrospectively collected data from patients’ medical records. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the independent risk factors for the development of PI. In addition, a simple linear regression model was conducted to assess the relationship between CPB duration and PI development.

Results
Of the 288 patients, 56 developed 80 PIs, with an incidence of 19.4% (95% confidence interval, 14.9%-24.3%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CPB duration, use of vasoactive drugs, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for the development of PIs in patients receiving cardiovascular surgery. Median CPB duration was significantly longer in the group with PIs compared with the group without PIs (144 [range 48-415] minutes compared with 102.5 [range 16-678] minutes, P = .000). This result was consistent in the subgroup analysis of pediatric and adult patients. Pressure injuries also increased proportionally with CPB duration, from 12.2% at 60 minutes or shorter to 45.5% at more than 300 minutes (P = .002, R2 = 0.936).

Conclusions
The CPB duration, use of vasoactive drugs, and presence of diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for the development of PIs in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with CPB. Our findings indicated that PI incidence increased incrementally with the duration of CPB. We recommend implementing measures to prevent PIs in cardiovascular surgical patients, especially those undergoing prolonged CPB, receiving vasoactive drugs, and diagnosed with diabetes.

 

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