Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) depletes endogenous Vitamin C and generates oxidative stress in cardiac surgery. This study aimed to clarify whether Vitamin C supplementation reduces oxidant production and improves erythrocyte deformability in cardiac surgery with CPB. In a randomized and controlled design, 30 eligible patients undergoing cardiac surgery with hypothermic CPB were equally assigned to the Vitamin C group and control group. Subjects of the Vitamin C group and control group received an intravenous infusion of Vitamin C 20 mg·kg–1 and a placebo during rewarming period of CPB, respectively. We measured the plasma level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation levels of non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) in erythrocyte membrane, as an index of erythrocyte deformability, before and after CPB. Vitamin C supplementation attenuated the surge in plasma ROS after CPB, mean 1.661 ± standard deviation 0.801 folds in the Vitamin C group and 2.743 ± 1.802 in the control group. The tyrosine phosphorylation level of NMIIA after CPB was upregulated in the Vitamin C group compared to the control group, 2.159 ± 0.887 folds and 1.384 ± 0.445 (P = 0.0237). In addition, the phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in erythrocytes was concurrently enhanced in the Vitamin C group after CPB. The phosphorylation level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in erythrocytes was significantly increased in the Vitamin C group (1.734 ± 0.371 folds) compared to control group (1.102 ± 0.249; P = 0.0061). Patients receiving Vitamin C had lower intraoperative blood loss and higher systemic vascular resistance after CPB compared to controls. Vitamin C supplementation attenuates oxidative stress and improves erythrocyte deformability via VASP/FAK signaling pathway in erythrocytes during CPB.