Risk Assessment of Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass

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Background

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious complication of cardiac surgery, associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Although the RIFLE criteria serve as a prominent tool to identify patients at high risk of AKI, an optimized diagnosis model in clinical practice is desired.

Methods

Based on the SOP-criteria, 365 patients (10%) developed AKI following surgery and were subjected to RRT. In contrast, the incidence of AKI, defined according to the RIFLE criteria, was only 7% (n = 251 patients). Prominent risk factors identified by SOP were patients’ sex, valve and combined valve and bypass surgery, deep hypothermia, use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and previous coronary interventions. Ischemia, reperfusion, blood loss and surgery time also served as significant risk factors for patient evaluated by SOP.

Results

Risk assessment by RIFLE differed in as much as most patients with normothermia and those receiving only cardiovascular bypass developed AKI. However, patients’ sex and valve surgery did not serve as a risk factor.

Conclusion

Evaluation of patients by the RIFLE versus SOP criteria yielded different results with more AKI patients detected by SOP. Based on the present data, it is concluded that patients may not prone to AKI when surgery and ischemia time will be kept short, when blood loss is mitigated to a minimum and when surgery is performed under non-hypothermic conditions.

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