The authors hypothesized that transfusion of blood products in neonates and infants undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery in the absence of intraoperative coagulation monitoring increases the risk of thrombotic complications.
Prospective observational study.
Neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery at a tertiary pediatric center.
Neonates weighing >2.5 kg and infants ≤12 months of age undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included in this prospective observational study.
Measurements and Results
Demographic data, surgical characteristics, transfusion data, and coagulation parameters (thromboelastography and thromboelastometry) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential determinants of postoperative thrombotic complications. Among the 138 neonates and infants included in the study, 12 (9%) developed a postoperative thrombotic complication. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis confirmed that the number and volume of blood products transfused were associated significantly with the increased incidence of thrombotic complication (odds ratio: 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-5.94, p = 0.008). This association persisted after adjustment for patient’s age, the need for deep hypothermic cardiac arrest, and bypass time (odds ratio: 2.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-4.87, p = 0.044). The number of blood products transfused was associated with a significant increase in parameters of clot amplitudes measured at cardiac intensive care unit admission, while no difference was reported when measured after the administration of protamine.
This prospective observational study reports a significant association between transfusion of blood products in neonates and young infants undergoing cardiac surgery and an increased incidence of thrombotic complications in the absence of intraoperative coagulation monitoring.