To identify potentially modifiable risk factors related to prolonged cardiovascular pharmacological support after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
This is a secondary analysis of two prospective cohort study in a specialized cardiac surgery institution in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB between August 2016 and July 2017. Prolonged cardiovascular pharmacological support was defined by the need for at least one vasopressor or one inotropic agent 24 hours after separation from CPB. Risk factors were identified among baseline characteristics and peri-operative events through multivariable logistic regression.
A total of 247 patients were included and 98 (39.7%) developed prolonged pharmacological support. In multivariable analysis, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 30% (OR 9.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14; 79.25), elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) > 30 and ≤ 55 mmHg (moderate) (OR 2.52, CI 1.15; 5.52) and sPAP > 55 mmHg (severe) (OR 8.12, CI 2.54; 26.03), as well as cumulative fluid balance in the first 24 hours after surgery (OR 1.76, CI 1.32; 2.33) were independently associated with the development of prolonged pharmacological support.
Prolonged cardiovascular pharmacological support is frequent after cardiac surgery on CPB. Severe LV systolic dysfunction, preoperative pulmonary hypertension and postoperative fluid overload are risk factors. Further studies are required to explore if those risk factors could be modified or not.