Report the incidence and results of peri-operative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) of patients undergoing mitral valve surgery (MVS) through right mini-thoracotomy (RT) and conventional full sternotomy (FS) for a period of 6 years from eleven tertiary Cardiac Surgery Institutes of GVM Care & Research Italia.
From January 2016 to November 2021, a total of 5901 consecutive patients underwent MVS through RT and FS. The primary outcome of the study was the mortality and incidence of low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) treated with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) with or without inotropic support and the incidence of Postcardiotomy Cardiogenic Shock (PCS) treated with Veno-arterial (VA) Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) on patients undergoing mitral valve surgery (MVS) through right mini-thoracotomy (RT) versus conventional full sternotomy (FS).
The mean age was 66 ± 15 years, 3389 patients underwent in RT approach 2512 in FS, 3081 (52%) patients were male and 2.3% had previous cardiac operations. Cardiopulmonary bypass time was 93 min for RT and 81 min for FS and cross clamp time 75 min for RT and 63 min for FS for mitral valve repair. Incidence of perioperative IABP for the treatment of low cardiac output was reported on 99 patients (1.6%), 51 for RT (1.5%), 35% used inotropic support (adrenaline and milrinone) and 48 in FS (1.9), 28% use inotropic support, 21 patients died after IABP (3 RT and 18 FS). Incidence of perioperative VA-ECMO for the PCS treatment was 13 and 4 with IABP, 9 RT (0.2%) and 4 FS approach (0.15%), 12 patients died after VA-ECMO.
Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery is a safe and reproducible approach associated with low mortality and morbidity. ECMO and IABP incidence for the treatment of PCS was 0.2% and for Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) was 1.6% in elective mitral valve surgery is very low. The patients that use the perioperative IABP in minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) trough RT reported a reduced mortality compared to FS in relation to the operative risk and surgical technique. Low incidence of VA-ECMO was found in RT and FS approach, only one patient survived after VA-ECMO after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.