Acute aortic dissection type A (AADA) is an emergency with excessive mortality if surgery is delayed. Knowledge about independent predictors of mortality on surgically treated AADA patients is scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify pre- and intraoperative risk factors for death.
Between July 2006 and June 2010, 2137 surgically treated patients with AADA were enrolled in a multicentre, prospective German Registry for Acute Aortic Dissection type A (GERAADA), presenting perioperative status, operative strategies, postoperative outcomes and AADA-related risk factors for death. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the influence of different parameters on 30-day mortality.
Overall 30-day mortality (16.9%) increased with age [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.121] and among patients who were comatose (adjusted OR = 3.501) or those who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (adjusted OR = 3.751; all P < 0.0001). The higher the number of organs that were malperfused, the risk for death was (adjusted OR for one organ = 1.651, two organs = 2.440, three organs or more = 3.393, P < 0.0001). Mortality increased with longer operating times (total, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac ischaemia and circulatory arrest; all P < 0.02). Arterial cannulation site for extracorporeal circulation, operative techniques and arch interventions had no significant impact on 30-day mortality (all P > 0.1). No significant risk factors, but relevant increases in mortality, were determined in patients suffering from hemiparesis pre- and postoperatively (each P < 0.01), and in patients experiencing paraparesis after surgery (P < 0.02).
GERAADA could detect significant disease- and surgery-related risk factors for death in AADA, influencing the outcome of surgically treated AADA patients. Comatose and resuscitated patients have the poorest outcome. Cannulation sites and operative techniques did not seem to affect mortality. Short operative times are associated with better outcomes.