The use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) leads to increased fluid filtration and edema. The use of artificial colloids to counteract fluid extravasation during cardiac surgery is controversial. Beneficial effects on global fluid loading, leading to better cardiac performance and hemodynamics, have been claimed. However, renal function and coagulation may be adversely affected, with unfavorable impact on outcome following cardiac surgery.
Forty patients were randomly allocated to study groups receiving either acetated Ringer’s solution (CT group) or hydroxyethyl starch (HES group, Tetraspan®) as CPB priming solution. Fluid balance, bleeding and hemodynamics, including cardiac output, were followed postoperatively. The occurrence of acute kidney injury was closely registered.
Two patients were excluded from further analyzes due to surgical complications. Fluid accumulation was attenuated in the HES group (3374 (883) ml) compared with the CT group (4328 (1469) ml) (p=0.024). The reduced perioperative fluid accumulation was accompanied by an increased cardiac index immediately after surgery (2.7 (0.4) L/min/m2 in the HES group and 2.1 (0.3) L/min/m2 in the CT group (p<0.001)). No increase in bleeding could be demonstrated in the HES group. Three patients, all of them in the HES group, experienced acute kidney injury postoperatively.
CPB priming with HES solution lowers fluid loading during bypass and improves cardiac function in the early postoperative period. The manifestation of acute kidney injury exclusively in the HES group of patients raises doubts about the use of HES products in conjunction with cardiac surgery.