Validation of a real-time monitoring device to evaluate the risk or occurrence of neurologic injury while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may aid clinicians in prevention and treatment. Therefore, we performed a pilot prospective cohort study of children under 18 years old on ECMO to analyze the association between cerebral blood pressure autoregulation as measured by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and radiographic neurologic injury. DCS measurements of regional cerebral blood flow were collected on enrolled patients and correlated with mean arterial blood pressure to determine the cerebral autoregulation metric termed DCSx. The primary outcome of interest was radiographic neurologic injury on eligible computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scored by a blinded pediatric neuroradiologist utilizing a previously validated scale. Higher DCSx scores, which indicate disruption of cerebral autoregulation, were associated with higher radiographic neurologic injury score (slope, 11.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29–22). Patients with clinically significant neurologic injury scores of 10 or more had higher median DCSx measures than patients with lower neurologic injury scores (0.48 vs. 0.13; p = 0.01). Our study indicates that obtaining noninvasive DCS measures for children on ECMO is feasible and disruption of cerebral autoregulation determined from DCS is associated with higher radiographic neurologic injury score.