Sustained Total All-Region (STAR) Perfusion: An Optimized Perfusion Strategy for Norwood Reconstruction

cardioplegia
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STAR perfusion allows the Norwood procedure to be completed with mild hypothermia and continuous perfusion to all vascular beds with reduced cardiopulmonary bypass as well as total operative times. This technique is successfully achieved with minimal changes to circuitry, minor modifications to heart-lung machine servoregulation and few additional cannulation disposables.

 

Early iterations of the Norwood procedure used aortic cross-clamping, myocardial arrest, and, sometimes, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. The resulting hypothermia and prolonged ischemia caused frequent cardiac, neurologic, renal, and other end-organ dysfunctions. Our group describes a novel technique, sustained total all-region (STAR) perfusion, which circumvents these issues by providing continuous perfusion to the head, heart, and coronaries at temperatures of 32-34°C. A single DLP® straight venous cannula (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) is placed in the right atrium, and a DLP® pediatric arterial cannula, with a high-flow stopcock attached, is placed in the ascending aorta or innominate artery to provide flow to the head. A cardioplegia needle with walrus tubing is connected to the stopcock to provide flow to the coronary arteries. For lower body perfusion, an olive tip cannula is placed into the descending aorta lumen and attached to the 1/8″ line from the cardioplegia system which provides warm arterial blood flow. STAR perfusion allows the Norwood procedure to be completed with mild hypothermia and continuous perfusion to all vascular beds with reduced cardiopulmonary bypass as well as total operative times. This technique is successfully achieved with minimal changes to circuitry, minor modifications to heart-lung machine servoregulation and few additional cannulation disposables.

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