Utilization of extraocorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become increasingly widespread as a bridging therapy for neonates with severe, reversible respiratory or cardiac diseases. While significant risks remain, due to advances in medical and surgical management, overall mortality has decreased. However, short and long-term neurological morbidity has remained high. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on multimodal neuromonitoring to track and optimally, minimize or prevent intracranial injury. This review will explore the the indications, advantages, disadvantages, timing, frequency, duration, and any known correlation with neurodevelopmental outcomes of common types of neuromonitoring in the neonatal ECMO population. Investigational monitoring techniques such as NIRS will be briefly reviewed.