Longitudinal assessment of brain perfusion is a critical parameter for neurodevelopmental outcome of neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass procedure. In this study, we aim to measure the variations of cerebral blood volume (CBV) in human neonates during cardiac surgery, using Ultrafast Power Doppler and freehand scanning. To be clinically relevant, this method must satisfy three criteria: being able to image a wide field of view in the brain, show significant longitudinal CBV variations, and present reproducible results. To address the first point, we performed for the first time transfontanellar Ultrafast Power Doppler using a hand-held phased-array transducer with diverging waves. This increased the field of view more than threefold compared to previous studies using linear transducers and plane waves. We were able to image vessels in the cortical areas as well as the deep grey matter and temporal lobes. Second, we measured the longitudinal variations of CBV on human neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. When compared to a pre-operative baseline acquisition, the CBV exhibited significant variation during bypass: on average, +20±3% in the mid-sagittal full sector (p<0.0001), -11±3% in the cortical regions (p<0.01) and -10±4% in the basal ganglia (p<0.01). Third, a trained operator performing identical scans was able to reproduce CBV estimates with a variability of 4% to 7.5% depending on the regions considered. We also investigated whether vessel segmentation could further improve reproducibility, but found that it actually introduced greater variability in the results. Overall, this study demonstrates the clinical translation of ultrafast power Doppler with diverging-waves and freehand scanning.