Methods and results: A total of 679 patients newly diagnosed with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were prospectively included over a 24-month period. Estimated survival at 1, 2, and 3 years was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90-95), 91% (95% CI, 87-93), and 89% (95% CI, 86-92) in operated patients (n=404), and only 88% (95% CI, 83-91), 79% (95% CI, 74-83), and 70% (95% CI, 64-76) in not-operated patients (n=275). In both operated and not-operated patients, pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted therapy did not affect survival estimates significantly. Mortality was associated with New York Heart Association functional class IV (hazard ratio [HR], 4.16; 95% CI, 1.49-11.62; P=0.0065 and HR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.76-12.88; P=0.0021), increased right atrial pressure (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.95-1.90; P=0.0992 and HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P=0.0004), and a history of cancer (HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.36-6.69; P=0.0065 and HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.18-3.94; P=0.0129) in operated and not-operated patients, respectively. Additional correlates of mortality were bridging therapy with pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted drugs, postoperative pulmonary hypertension, surgical complications, and additional cardiac procedures in operated patients, and comorbidities such as coronary disease, left heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in not-operated patients.
Conclusions: The long-term prognosis of operated patients currently is excellent and better than the outcome of not-operated patients.