Coronary angiography (CAG) frequently reveals coronary artery disease (CAD) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but its use is not standardized and often reported in different subpopulations. This systematic review and meta-analysis accurately describes angiographic features in resuscitated and refractory OHCA.
PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to October 31, 2022. Studies reporting coronary angiography findings after OHCA were considered eligible. The primary outcome was location and rate of coronary lesions. Coronary angiography findings with 95% confidence intervals were pooled with a meta-analysis of proportion.
128 studies (62,845 patients) were included. CAG, performed in 69% (63–75%) of patients, found a significant CAD in 75% (70–79%), a culprit lesion in 63% (59-66%), and a multivessel disease in 46% (41-51%). Compared to patients with return of spontaneous circulation, refractory OHCA was associated with more severe CAD due to a higher rate of left main involvement (17% [12–24%] vs 5.7% [3.1–10%]; p = 0.002) and acute occlusion of left anterior descending artery (27% [17–39%] vs 15% [13–18%]; p = 0.02). Nonshockable patients without ST-elevation were those receiving CAG less frequently, despite significant disease in 54% (31–76%). Left anterior descending artery was the most frequently involved (34% [30–39%]).
Patients with OHCA have a high prevalence of significant CAD caused by acute and treatable coronary lesions. Refractory OHCA was associated with more severe coronary lesions. CAD was also present in patients with nonshockable rhythm and without ST elevation. However, heterogeneity of studies and selection of patients undergoing CAG limit the certainty of findings.