Association Between Short-term Neurological Outcomes and Extreme Hyperoxia in Patients with Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Who Underwent Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Retrospective Observational Study from a Multicenter Registry
Background: To investigate the impact of hyperoxia that developed immediately after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) on patients’ short-term neurological outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed data from the Japanese OHCA registry from June 2014 to December 2017. We analyzed adult patients (≥18 years) who had undergone ECPR. Eligible patients were divided into the following three groups based on their initial partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) levels after ECMO pump-on: normoxia group, PaO2 ≤ 200 mm Hg; moderate hyperoxia group, 200 mm Hg < PaO2 ≤ 400 mm Hg; and extreme hyperoxia group, PaO2 > 400 mm Hg. The primary and secondary outcomes were 30-day favorable neurological outcomes. Logistic regression statistical analysis model of 30-day favorable neurological outcomes was performed after adjusting for multiple propensity scores calculated using pre-ECPR covariates and for confounding factors post-ECPR.
Results: Of the 34,754 patients with OHCA enrolled in the registry, 847 were included. The median PaO2 level was 300 mm Hg (interquartile range: 148–427 mm Hg). Among the eligible patients, 277, 313, and 257 were categorized as normoxic, moderately hyperoxic, and extremely hyperoxic, respectively. Moderate hyperoxia was not significantly associated with 30-day neurologically favorable outcomes compared with normoxia as a reference (adjusted odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.55–1.35; p = 0.51).
However, extreme hyperoxia was associated with less 30-day neurologically favorable outcomes when compared with normoxia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.29–0.82; p = 0.007).
Conclusions: For patients with OHCA who received ECPR, extreme hyperoxia (PaO2 > 400 mm Hg) was associated with 30-day poor neurological outcomes. Avoidance of extreme hyperoxia may improve neurological outcomes in patients with OHCA treated with ECPR.