We aim at identifying the changes in venous blood saturation values that associates intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in cardiac surgery patients with reduced left ventricular function (LVF).
A retrospective observational study was conducted in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CTICU) in a tertiary cardiac center over 5 years in Qatar. A total of 114 patients with at least moderate impairment of LVF with ejection fraction (EF) less than 40% were enrolled. According to the association of IABP, patients were segregated into two groups with and without IABP (groups 1, 40 patients and group 2, 74 patients). Sequential arterial and venous blood gases were analyzed. The primary outcome was to analyze the changes in the central venous saturation (ScvO2) in both groups and the secondary outcome was to analyze whether these changes affect the overall outcome in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay.
There was no significant difference between both groups with regard to age, preoperative EF, hemoglobin, and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) in blood gases. Patients with IABP have a higher cScvO2 when compared to the other group (71.5 ± 12.5 vs 63.5 ± 9.3, 68.3 ± 12.6 vs 60.1 ± 9.5, 62.7 ± 10.8 vs 55.63 ± 8.1, and 60.6 ± 7.6 vs 54.9 ± 8.1; p = 0.04, 0.05, 0.03, and 0.5, respectively). However, generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis showed that compared with the participants showing that there is a decreasing trend in mean levels within the groups during follow-ups, overall difference between both groups’ mean levels was not statistically significant.
In this study, we observed that after cardiac surgeries, patients with IABP had non-significant higher ScvO2 when compared with a corresponding group with moderate impairment of LVF. Further prospective studies are required to validate these findings.