Postoperative delirium in intensive care is common and associated with mortality, cognitive impairment, prolonged hospital stays and high costs. We evaluate whether a nurse-led orientation program could reduce the incidence of delirium in the intensive care unit after cardiovascular surgery.
In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled patients admitted to the intensive care unit for planned cardiovascular surgery between January 2020 and December 2021. A nurse-led orientation program based on a preoperative visit was routinely introduced from January 2021. We assessed the association between these visits and postoperative delirium in the intensive care unit. We also assessed predictors of postoperative delirium with baseline and intraoperative characteristics.
Among 253 patients with planned cardiovascular surgery, 128 (50.6%) received preoperative visits. Valve surgery comprised 44.7%, coronary surgery 31.6%, and aortic surgery 20.9%. Cardiopulmonary bypass use and transcatheter surgery were 60.5% and 12.3%, respectively. Incidence of delirium was lower in patients that received preoperative visits, and median hospital stay was shorter than in those without visits (18 patients [14.1%] vs 34 patients [27.2%], P < 0.01; 14 days vs 17 days, P < 0.01). After adjusting predefined confounders, preoperative visits were independently associated with decreased incidence of delirium (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.45; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.22–0.84). Other predictors of delirium were higher European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II score and lower minimum intraoperative cerebral oxygen saturation.
A preoperative nurse-led orientation program was associated with reduction of postoperative delirium and could be effective against postoperative delirium after cardiovascular surgery.
Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry no. UMIN000048142. Registered 22, July, 2022, retrospectively registered, https://center6.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000054862.