To evaluate sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) use and complications (euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis [eDKA] rate, mortality, infection, hospital, and cardiovascular intensive care unit [CVICU] length of stay [LOS]) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
A retrospective study.
At an academic university hospital.
Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
SGLT2i use versus no SGLT2i use.
Measurements and Main Results
The authors evaluated patients undergoing cardiac surgery within 24 hours of hospital admission (between February 2, 2019 to May 26, 2022) for SGLT2i prevalence and eDKA frequency. The outcomes were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum and chi-square testing as appropriate. The cohort included 1,654 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, of whom 53 (3.2%) were prescribed an SGLT2i before surgery; 8 (15.1%) of 53 had eDKA. The authors found no differences between patients with and without SGLT2i use in hospital LOS (median [IQR]: 4.5 [3.5-6.3] v 4.4 [3.4-5.6] days, p = 0.46) or CVICU LOS (median [IQR]: 1.2 [1.0-2.2] v 1.1 [1.0-1.9] days, p = 0.22), 30-day mortality (1.9% v 0.7%, p = 0.31), or sternal infections (0.0% v 0.3%, p = 0.69). Among patients prescribed an SGLT2i, those with and without eDKA had similar hospital LOS (5.1 [4.0-5.8] v 4.4 [3.4-6.3], p = 0.76); however, CVICU LOS was longer in patients with eDKA (2.2 [1.5-2.9] v 1.2 [0.9-2.0], p = 0.042). Mortality (0.0% v 2.2%, p = 0.67) and wound infections (0.0% v 0.0%, p > 0.99) were similarly rare.
Postoperative eDKA occurred in 15% of patients on an SGLT2i prior to cardiac surgery, and was associated with longer CVICU LOS. Future studies into SGLT2i management perioperatively are important.