To review current literature evidence on outcomes of cardiac surgery in Jehovah’s Witness patients.
A comprehensive electronic literature search was done from 2010 to 20th August 2020 identifying articles that discussed optimisation/outcomes of cardiac surgery in Jehovah’s Witness either as a solo cohort or as comparative to non-Jehovah’s Witnesses. No limit was placed on place of publication and the evidence has been summarised in a narrative manner within the manuscript.
The outcomes of cardiac surgery in Jehovah’s Witness patients has been described, and also compared, to non-Witness patients within a number of case reports, case series and comparative cohort studies. Many of these studies note no significant differences between outcomes of the two groups for a number of variables, including mortality. Pre-, intra and post-operative optimisation of the patients by a multidisciplinary team is important to achieve good outcomes.
The use of a bloodless protocol for Jehovah’s Witnesses does not appear to significantly impact upon clinical outcomes when compared to non-Witness patients, and it has even been suggested that a bloodless approach could provide advantages to all patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Larger cohorts and research across multiple centres into the long term outcomes of these patients is required.