Purpose of review
To review pathophysiological pathways of immune system response to infections, which may justify mediators removal by extracorporeal blood purification therapies (EBPTs) in critically ill septic patients. Moreover, we presented an overview of the EBPTs mostly used in clinical practice with the aim to modulate immune system dysfunction in sepsis.
Sepsis is a life-threatening disease and recent findings showed that its pathophysiology relies on dysregulated immune system response to pathogen invasion of the body. In the light of this view, EBPTs have been demonstrated effective to remove specific mediators and foster balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways.
EBPTs have been widely used in clinical practice, with the aim to modulate immune system dysfunction by the removal of pathogens and inflammatory mediators in critically ill patients with sepsis. Such therapies are characterised by specific structural features, which allow selective and nonselective removal of mediators by adsorption. However, few evidences support their role in the management of critically ill patients with sepsis. Accordingly, an evidence-based and personalized approach to EBPTs in sepsis is strongly advocated, in order to solve controversies in this field and optimise the management of critically ill septic patients.