Mitral annular disjunction is fibrous separation between the attachment of the posterior mitral leaflet and the basal left ventricular myocardium initially described in dissected hearts. Currently, it is commonly evaluated by echocardiography, and potential relationships with mitral valve prolapse and ventricular arrhythmia have been suggested. However, controversy remains as its prevalence and extent have not been fully elucidated in normal living subjects.
Methods and results
Systolic datasets of cardiac computed tomography obtained from 98 patients (mean age, 69.1 ± 12.6 years; 81% men) with structurally normal hearts were assessed retrospectively. Circumferential extent of both mitral leaflets and disjunction was determined by rotating orthogonal multiplanar reconstruction images around the central axis of the mitral valvar orifice. Distribution angle within the circumference of the mitral valvar attachment and maximal height of disjunction were quantified. In total, 96.0% of patients demonstrated disjunction. Average distribution angles of the anterior and posterior mitral leaflets were 91.3 ± 9.4° and 269.8 ± 9.7°, respectively. Average distribution angle of the disjunction was 105.1 ± 49.2°, corresponding to 39.0 ± 18.2% of the entire posterior mitral valvar attachment. Median value of the maximal height of disjunction was 3.0 (1.5–7.0) mm. Distribution prevalence map of the disjunction revealed characteristic double peaks, with frequent sites of the disjunction located at the anterior to antero-lateral and inferior to infero-septal regions.
Mitral annular disjunction is a rather common finding in the normal adult heart with bimodal distribution predominantly observed involving the P1 and P3 scallops of the posterior mitral leaflet.